Bayer & Bayer Inc.

Watertight & Structurally Sound


As-Built Condition
Concrete Block
Drain Tile
Expansive Clay Soils
Horizontal Cracks
Palmer Valve
Plumb Line
Poured Walls
Radon Gas
Steel Restraints
Step Cracks
Stone Backfill
Sump Crock
Sump Pump
Wall Drainage Board
Wall Deflection
Wall Irregularities
Wall Slide (Base Shear)

As-Built Condition -
A basement wall with No Defects as constructed immediately following either installation of the concrete masonry or poured concrete wall before backfilling. The wall can be said to have no defects if the corners and/or the walls were constructed out of plumb with no cracks or movement. Additionally, the wall is not defective if repair has been done 10 years or more prior to the time of inspection and there are no cracks or movement. Shrinkage cracks with no movement of the wall are not considered a structural defect. Measurement of a wall is done by averaging the measurements of both corners compared to the measurement at the center of the wall.     [top]
Backfill -
Material used to fill in an excavation.     [top]
Bleeders -
Concrete or plastic pipe that is installed through the footing or foundation wall to allow transfer of water from the exterior drain tile to the interior drain tile.     [top]
Concrete Block -
Concrete masonry unit used in basement wall construction. Concrete block is commonly used in nominal 8”, 10” or 12” widths and is typically 8” tall by 16” long with 2 open cells in the block. The concrete blocks are stacked with alternating vertical joints using mortar between the joints to hold the block together.     [top]
Downspout -
Aluminum or galvanized steel pipe that directs water collected in the rain gutters down to the ground and away from the building.     [top]
Drain Tile (Interior or Exterior) -
Concrete or plastic perforated pipe used underground to collect water and direct it to the sump crock. Exterior drain tile is placed on the outside of the building at the elevation of, or on top of the footing, consistent with existing conditions. Interior drain tile is placed around the inside perimeter of the building just below the floor slab. Drain tile is encased in clear aggregate to allow for water drainage to the pipe.     [top]
Efflorescence (Scale Stains) -
White mineral deposits showing on the face of masonry due to water leaching through the masonry to the dry surface.     [top]
Epoxy -
Material used to repair cracks in concrete or masonry. Epoxy is a material that can be injected into wall cracks and when cured forms a very strong bond with the base material. Epoxy can be used for the structural repair of walls.     [top]
Expansive Clay Soils -
Expansive soils contain minerals that are capable of absorbing water, which enables the soils to increase in volume. Expansions of 10 percent or more are common. This change in volume can exert force on a building or other structure causing substantial damage.     [top]
Grade -
Reference to the pitch of the exterior ground surface adjacent to the building.     [top]
Horizontal Cracks -
Usually associated with bowing or displacement of masonry walls that are not plumb vertically and/or horizontally.     [top]
Level -
Instrument used for measuring the plane of a vertical or horizontal surface.     [top]
Palmer Valve -
Storm-water discharge valve typically located in the side wall of the floor drain, designed to prevent back-flow of sanitary sewer into storm-water system.     [top]
Pilaster -
A projection of masonry or a filled cell area of masonry for the purpose of bearing concentrated loads or to stiffen the wall against lateral forces.     [top]
Plumb Line -
Tool for measuring deflection consisting of a weight and string. The string is attached at the top of the wall and the weight is at the end of the string located near the floor providing a straight vertical reference line. Measurements are taken from the string to the wall to determine the amount of horizontal deflection in the wall.     [top]
Poured Walls -
Solid concrete walls that are constructed by setting concrete wall forms, installing steel reinforcing bars and pouring concrete into the forms to create a wall.     [top]
Radon Gas -
Odorless and colorless slightly radioactive gas that can seep into basements through floor or wall cracks. At certain concentrations Radon Gas is considered a health hazard. For more information on Radon Gas, refer to     [top]
Seepage -
Water infiltration through masonry walls or floor slab. Seepage is evidenced by damp or wet masonry walls or concrete floor and is an indication that the basement drainage system is overloaded or not functioning correctly.     [top]
Steel Restraints -
Wall reinforcing used to prevent further movement in basement walls. Steel restraints are typically composed of steel tubes placed vertically against the basement walls at a 32” or 48” spacing.     [top]
Step Cracks -
Cracks in masonry walls that follow the vertical and horizontal joints in the masonry in a stepped fashion. Step cracks can be due to horizontal wall deflection, foundation settlement or shrinkage of concrete masonry.     [top]
Stone Backfill -
Clear crushed aggregate ¾” to 1” diameter used to backfill excavations. Stone backfill allows for water to migrate easily towards the drain tile located at the basement footing elevation. Additionally, stone backfill will have minimal settlement around the perimeter of the building after backfilling.     [top]
Sump Crock -
Concrete, steel or plastic basin placed below the floor slab in the lowest area of the building for collecting water from drain tile. Top rim to extend minimum 1” above floor.     [top]
Sump Pump -
Submersible or upright pump located in sump crock to pump water out and away from the building.     [top]
Tuckpoint -
Term used for the repair of cracks that occur in the joints in masonry walls. Tuckpointing involves the removal and replacement of the mortar between masonry units where cracking along the joints has occurred.     [top]
Wall Drainage Board -
One piece corrugated or ribbed plastic panel that is placed to form an angle on top of the wall footing and against the masonry wall. The panel extends a minimum of 1” above the floor slab elevation. The wall drainage board is used to drain water from the cores of concrete masonry walls to the interior drain tile.     [top]
Wall Deflection -
The amount of horizontal movement in a basement wall at any given location with respect to its vertical plane.     [top]
Wall Irregularities -
Masonry wall corners or ares in the wall that have thickened sections. Example of wall irregularities include foundations for masonry fireplaces and wall pilasters.     [top]
Wall Slide (Base Shear) -
Horizontal movement of basement wall, usually occuring at the bottom section of the wall.     [top]